Smaller satellites, designed for shorter lifetimes, are less expensive, and provider nations can continually upgrade them with leading-edge technology, right up until they are launched. Responsive Launch is characterized by the ability to launch a Space payload on short notice, and is defined as a function of the characteristics of the launch vehicle, the spacecraft, and the process.
The idea of short notice, especially for military reasons or requirements, is to react quickly to developing situations. Process-wise, classical Space launch campaigns last from several weeks to even months, and conclude with the on-orbit checkout phase of the satellite, which satellite operators also must reduce significantly.
A responsive launch capability requires already produced and preassembled Space Launch Vehicles SLV , either produced or at least in assembly sets, and pre-produced satellites, all kept in stock and ready to deploy. In addition to adjusting orbits for the reasons cited above, nations could launch satellites to an optimized orbit to cover a special area of operations.
This allows for the option to include the specific orbit design in the operational planning process. Operational responsive launches are determined by specific orbital parameters calculated for a specific mission. In particular, the most important factor is the inclination, i. An additional advantage is that the number of overflights in this area would be significantly higher.
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However, the use of low-inclination orbits might be limited due to the locations of the C2 ground infrastructure with which the satellite needs to communicate. Employing mobile solutions could be an alternative, but it would raise the system costs tremendously. The launch phase of a satellite is the most risky timeframe in spacecraft operations, but advances in technology have provided some benefits, including decreasing launch costs, that provide options worth a deeper look into the topic.
Responsive Launch of ISR Satellites
The use of small satellites with a shorter lifetime in lower orbits will reduce the costs of the satellite itself. Since lighter payloads require smaller launchers, a new risk management approach can be employed. There may be a higher possibility to lose a satellite due to a launch failure, but it is more tolerable because of the decreased costs. This has opened the market for commercial launch services in recent years.
From the military perspective, as well as a commercial perspective, the need for quick, responsive launches is universally acknowledged.
Additional options include air-launched solutions. Air-launched systems have fewer limitations according to the designed inclination of the orbit than ground-based systems. These kinds of launchers permit the launch of a small satellite by definition with a mass less than kg into LEO up to km without the need for a long-term launch campaign. However, rapid availability of an SLV requires some form of standardized and pre-produced design.http://fiveup.dev3.develag.com/675-chistes-de-lepe.php
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Pre-produced SLVs, in this case, include already assembled, storable, or modular systems that technicians can produce from components within a few days or weeks. Figure 1: Ground tracks for a satellite in different orbits. The green one would be a specially designed orbit to support an operation in Afghanistan Kabul is shown in the picture.
As mentioned, nations do not use on-orbit spare satellites for ISR missions. First of all, there is the option to launch just the right sensor type and capability to replace a specific space-based need that a commander has lost.
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