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Zone 1 contains those who never attend school. It includes those who could attend existing schools but do not, and those who are excluded by livelihoods, location, civil status, disability, social stigma or other vulnerabilities.

Mind and the Causal Exclusion Problem

Zone 2 includes the majority of children who are excluded after initial entry, who drop out of school and fail to complete a full cycle. In an increasing number of countries these are the largest numbers of out of school children. Zone 3 includes those in school but at risk of drop out, most obviously as a result of low achievement and poor attendance.

Zone 4 contains those who fail to transit to secondary education as a result of failing to be selected, being unable to afford costs, or located far from a secondary school, or otherwise excluded. Exclusion itself promotes poverty, and exits from poverty therefore depend on eliminating or bypassing the usual effects of social exclusion. Political programmes to address political interests are required.

Access full text: available online. Mosse, D. Chronic Poverty Research Centre. What are the causes of chronic poverty and through what social mechanisms does it persist?

In This Section

How does a weak group become a constituency and a political agenda? This paper draws on case studies from western India.


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  5. Research on poverty has to be reconnected to knowledge about the way in which socio-economic, political and cultural systems work. Chronic poverty develops in the midst of capitalist growth and is perpetuated by ordinary relations of exploitation and opportunity hoarding. To address it, multi-level and long-term strategies are needed.

    The patterns and causes of social exclusion in Luxembourg

    Stewart, F. Working Paper No. Why do Horizontal Inequalities HIs persist in some cases and narrow in others? This paper explores case studies of HIs over time in different countries.

    Model of Zones of Exclusion

    It presents a framework in which complementarities between the productivity and accumulation of different types of capital tend to lead to self-perpetuating cycles of success and failure. Persistence of HIs is not inevitable, but interventions are generally needed in relation to both human capital accumulation and economic disadvantage if groups are to catch up.

    Causes and implications of exclusion

    Exclusionary processes can have various dimensions: Political exclusion can include the denial of citizenship rights such as political participation and the right to organise, and also of personal security, the rule of law, freedom of expression and equality of opportunity. Social exclusion may take the form of discrimination along a number of dimensions including gender, ethnicity and age, which reduce the opportunity for such groups to gain access to social services and limits their participation in the labour market.

    Cultural exclusion refers to the extent to which diverse values, norms and ways of living are accepted and respected.